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U.S. Civil Space Primer

refers to departments, agencies, and organizations of the federal government that have operational, regulatory, policy, or other responsibilities over the space activities of the United States, including private sector space activities, which are non-military in nature. Civil space has its roots in the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, which separated military and civilian […]

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The Evolution of French Space Security

In the last decade, there has been an international resurgence of focus on space for commercial, civil, and military activities. Space is now a critical domain for many nations around the globe, and both individual countries and multinational coalitions have recently released space policies and strategies. European nations have taken a greater interest in space […]

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Mission Authorization: Decoding the Space Policy Dilemma

On November 15, 2023, the White House’s National Space Council released a legislative proposal that would create a licensing process for private sector novel space activities, called mission authorization, consistent with U.S. obligations under the Outer Space Treaty (OST) of 1967. Meanwhile, Congress and a government-chartered space advisory group have offered their own proposals. While all parties acknowledge […]

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Another Leap Forward: India’s Historic Moon Landing and the Space Competition Underway

Critical Questions is produced by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), a private, tax-exempt institution focusing on international public policy issues. Its research is nonpartisan and nonproprietary. CSIS does not take specific policy positions. Accordingly, all views, positions, and conclusions expressed in this publication should be understood to be solely those of the author(s). […]

Congressional Testimony: NASA’s Future in Low Earth Orbit

The following testimony was presented to the House Science, Space, & Technology Committee during its “NASA’s Future in Low Earth Orbit: Considerations for ISS Extension and Transition” hearing on September 21, 2021.  Chairman Beyer, Ranking Member Babin, and distinguished members of the Subcommittee, thank you for the opportunity to testify on this important topic. The […]

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